Being a Fiscal Impact City: Long-Term Planning

Introduction

In recent weeks we looked at how adopting a fiscal impact approach to operating and capital budgeting can help a community make more sustainable choices. This week we apply the same logic to long-range fiscal planning.

Framework for Long Term Planning

Long range planning, according to the National Advisory Committee on State and Local Budgeting (NACSLB)  is a process to assess the long-term financial implications of current and proposed policies, programs, and assumptions. This process creates appropriate strategies to achieve a community’s long-term goals. Though finance officers and budget managers are daily working with a city’s budget, revenue and operating numbers, financial planning expands their awareness of how these statistics relate to each other and to external variables like economic indicators and demographic trends. Taking a long-term perspective helps these local leaders improve their awareness of options, potential problems, and opportunities. The range of issues that they can examine with this approach includes revenues, expenditures, and the service implications of changing or eliminating programs or adding new programs, services, or debt.

A summary of the key steps should include:

  1. Analysis of financial trends
  2. Assessment of problems or opportunities facing the city and potential actions to address them
  3. Long-term revenue and spending forecasts
  4. Consideration of how these trends relate to citywide and departmental goals set out in strategic or comprehensive plans

Such a process is not just a forecast. It engages all internal departments, key external stakeholders and the general public in so far as all these have some role in setting and helping achieve key goals.

The NACSLB identifies several best practices that can support the long-range planning process including:

  • Prepare multi-year revenue and spending forecasts using a variety of methods
  • Evaluating and understanding how changes in the tax base and revenues will impact city operations
  • Examination of tax exemptions, incentives and other policies that can reduce revenue
  • Prepare multi-year projections of spending for each fund and for current and proposed programs
  • Evaluate revenue and expenditure options together, and present these relationships so elected officials and the public can understand the implications of changes in service levels and revenues and how they can impact each other.

Role for Fiscal Impact Models

Other best practices are also presented in the report. For our purposes we want to highlight how fiscal impact analysis can help tie these steps and practices together. The goal is to improve fiscal sustainability with the model, not just use it to evaluate individual projects. Using a full fiscal impact model is the most direct way to use this process to analyze revenue, spending and economic data in ways that help policy makers and the public understand the consequences of budgeting decisions. These decisions may appear harmless when looked at in an annual budget presentation. A community risks making very wasteful and politically damaging decisions without taking a longer term perspective.

First, a good fiscal impact model will make use of extensive, custom information on the city’s spending, revenue and staffing. This detailed data is the only way to make meaningful and accurate predictions of the consequences of changes. At a minimum, the historical data in the model should include enough years of data to see how they budget and how revenues change in good and bad financial times. A full business cycle is a good starting point.

Second, the model will connect these municipal financial statistics to activities in the real economy. Service costs will change based on the population, employment level, industry mix and physical form of the city. As these external factors change, local leaders need to be able to predict how their service demands and resources are likely to change, too.

Third, the model should give local leaders a projection that is long enough to help them make good decisions. A five to ten-year projection is usually adequate for most operations and department-level variables. For capital infrastructure or other longer-lived decisions the projection should go out at least as far as the infrastructure is expected to last and to include maintenance and replacement costs.

Because of these features of a good fiscal impact model, a city can combine its revenue, operation and economic forecasting in a single package that will help the community understand where they stand in terms of their goals and the means to achieve those goals. As always, there needs to be extensive citizen engagement in these processes so that when setting sustainable goals, local leaders can win the support of the community. When the community understands the consequences of these choices, and what can happen when there is a downturn, it will be easier to stay the course.

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