Today we look at the just-released metropolitan area gross domestic product (GDP) data. This data release from the U.S. Bureau of Economic Statistics brings the data up to 2015. We can use this data to compare the 382 metropolitan areas in the U.S. to the overall performance of metropolitan America. As a reminder, GDP is the total value of economic activity produced in an area.
Though there is a delay in this data, it is an important economic indicator for local leaders. The analysis below uses real GDP, which has been adjusted for inflation so we can compare changes over time.
From the BEA press release we see that GDP increased in 292 metropolitan areas in 2015 compared to the previous year. In other words, approximately 76 percent of MSAs saw growth in their total GDP. The sectors that contributed most to this growth were professional and business services; wholesale and retail trade; and finance, insurance, real estate. Growth in these three broad industry categories was widespread. Out of the 382 MSAs, these industries grew in 77 percent, 88 percent and 64 percent of MSAs, respectively.
Per Capita Growth Rates
The headline numbers discussed above do not account for population growth. We like to look at per-capita changes in GDP to give a better idea of the actual health of a community. The economic output per person is a better indicator than overall MSA growth. This is because businesses that are achieving higher per-worker growth rates can afford to increase wages. Slow per-capita GDP growth means stagnant wage growth.
To get a longer term perspective, we looked at compound annual growth rates for three time periods. We calculated these rates of change for the seven years before the great recession (2001 to 2008), the seven years after (2008 to 2015) and we looked at the change from 2014 to 2015. Using compound annual growth rates cancels out the year to year ups and downs.
U.S. Metro Areas
In the seven years before the Great Recession, the per capita GDP for all MSAs grew at a 1.1 percent rate annually. In the seven years after the Great Recession, that growth rate fell to 0.3 percent. Growth accelerated again in the last year to 1.6 percent (between 2014 and 2015.) This national growth rate is a benchmark we can compare all metro areas against. In per capita terms, there were fewer growing MSAs nationally than when looking at growth not adjusted for population. There were 274 MSAs that saw per-capita growth in the last year.
We found that economic growth was more widespread across MSAs before the Great Recession that after it. In the period before the Great Recession, 188 MSAs grew faster than the national average. That amounts to 49 percent of all MSAs. In the seven years after, growth was more concentrated, with only 149 MSAs exceeding the national growth rate. Those MSAs accounted for 39 percent of all MSAs. This trend seems to be intensifying, with only 34 percent of MSAs growing faster than the U.S. in the last year.
Texas Metro Areas
Looking at Texas, we see a different pattern. There are 25 MSAs in Texas. Before the Great Recession, 64 percent of them grew faster than U.S. After the recession, 76 percent, (19 of the 25) grew faster than the U.S. in per capita terms. This may reflect the boost given to many Texas MSAs from the shale oil boom. That boom was beginning to deflate by 2015 and it shows in Texas MSA growth rates. In the last year since the recession, only 10 MSAs in Texas were growing faster than the U.S. The following table lists all Texas MSAs with their per capita GDP growth rates.
|Texas MSA Per Capita Income and Compound Growth Rates|
|Area||2015 Per Capita GDP||2001-2008 Compound Annual Change||2008-2015 Compound Annual Change||2014-2015 Annual Change|
|United States (All MSAs)||$ 52,896||1.1%||0.3%||1.6%|
|Austin-Round Rock||$ 55,323||1.7%||1.2%||2.0%|
|Beaumont-Port Arthur||$ 49,966||2.3%||2.5%||5.3%|
|College Station-Bryan||$ 33,457||0.4%||1.6%||0.2%|
|Corpus Christi||$ 46,486||1.5%||2.2%||1.0%|
|Dallas-Fort Worth-Arlington||$ 63,197||0.7%||1.0%||1.4%|
|El Paso||$ 30,865||-0.7%||-0.3%||3.0%|
|Houston-Woodlands-Sugar Land||$ 70,797||0.1%||1.1%||1.9%|
|San Angelo||$ 37,942||0.6%||1.5%||-1.5%|
|San Antonio-New Braunfels||$ 42,169||0.2%||1.5%||3.4%|
|Wichita Falls||$ 41,590||1.9%||0.5%||2.7%|
|Source: Axianomics, LLC analysis of U.S. BEA data.|
Next week, we will share our best reads for the month. These are the studies and reports that we think are most helpful for local leaders who are working to strengthen their communities fiscal and economic health. In the meantime, let us know how we can help you make more confident economic and fiscal choices for your community. Contact